Most Muslims get nostalgic over the Islamic golden age, when they become disillusioned with today's Muslim world.
Little do modern Muslims know that most of the greatest minds from Islamic golden age subscribed to the school and teachings of Mu'taza/mu'tazaila.
By today's standard by would get beaten up and possibly killed.
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In a nutshell mu'tazas incorporated ancient Greek philosophy and adjusted in Islamic context of metaphysical properties in the world, object, space, time, cause and effect.
The group did not necessarily use the Quran and the sun ah as the only sources of understanding.
They believed that humans existence was not predetermined and human kind made decisions independently of gods will. (Believed in absolute free will.)
Many of the greatest mind from the Islamic golden age we're fiercest critics of literal interpretation of the quran.
Among the many reasons, the Muslims world lack critical thought due to preference of revelation over reason/rationalism.
Ibn Ḥanbal school of thought, was the seed of the down fall in the Muslims in the field of science and technology. Through his seed whabism came into existence and being the most dominant in the Muslim world..